Recovery from neurological injuries is typically incomplete and often results in significant and permanent disabilities. Currently, most available therapies are limited to supportive or palliative measures, aimed at managing the symptoms of the condition. Because restorative therapies targeting the underlying cause of most neurological diseases do not exist, cell therapies targeting anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and regenerative potential hold great promise. Cord blood (CB) cells can induce repair through mechanisms that involve trophic or cell-based paracrine effects or cellular integration and differentiation.
Both may be operative in emerging CB therapies for neurologic conditions, and there are numerous potential
applications of CB-based regenerative therapies in neurological diseases, including genetic diseases of childhood, ischemic events such as stroke and neurodegenerative diseases of adulthood. CB appears to hold promise as an effective therapy for patients with brain injuries. In this Review, we describe the state of science and clinical applications of CB therapy for brain injury.